C.V.’s, Résumés, and Hybrids

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No matter whether you are developing your C.V., hybrid C.V./ résumé, or résumé, remember to tailor it to the job you are applying for so that the most relevant experiences are highlighted. You may also include an objective or summary section at the top of the document.


A C.V. offers a summary of your experience and skills. It is more extensive than a résumé and includes information about your education, research experience, teaching experience, grant and other research awards, publications and presentations, and other achievements. It can be as long as needed to convey the necessary information

A C.V. often speaks more to an academic audience, so faculty jobs require them. It is can also often used when applying to jobs outside the United States of America. If you are applying for jobs outside the U.S., make sure to first research best practices for the specific region. Determine if you need a résumé or a C.V. Also determine what the norms are in terms of information to include. For more information on C.V.s for international jobs, see advice by All About Careers or The Balance Careers.

Hybrid C.V./ Résumé

Hybrid C.V.s or résumés are a mix between a complete C.V. and a résumé. They are often useful when applying to positions that value academic background, are research oriented nonacademic positions, or some community college jobs. In terms of length, they tends to be a bit longer than a résumé but you should try to limit it to the most relevant experiences.


Résumés also offer a summary of your education, work experience, skills and accomplishments. It must be tailored to every job you are applying for and can highlight the relevant skills and experiences that make you an ideal candidate. A summary statement can be particularly helpful to highlight the key factors that make you suitable for the position.

Harvard Business Review explains how employers spend approximately 6 seconds reviewing a résumé. Therefore, it is important to make the summary or objective statement memorable to capture their attention to continue reading it. In terms of length, limit your résumé to 1 or maximum 2 pages.

Penn State Career Services
offers free career counseling.  They can provide tips on transforming a CV into a resume and much more.


Additional Resources

Re-envisioning the Ph.D.: “Re-envisioning Project Resources”

This project from the University of Washington contains a collection of sites on cover letter writing, CV to resume information, professional writing handouts and resources, and writing a CV for higher education job searches

“Resume Workshop” by Jared Redick

This workshop is an hour and a half and helps academics create effective resumes for alt-ac jobs.  It is sponsored through the University of California’s Humanities Research Institute.

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